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ThreadsafeFunction

ThreadsafeFunction

ThreadSafe Function is a complex concept in Node.js. As we all know, Node.js is single threaded, so you can't access napi_env, napi_value, and napi_ref on another thread.

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napi_env, napi_value, and napi_ref are low level concepts in Node-API, which the #[napi] macro of NAPI-RS is built on top of. NAPI-RS also provides a low level API to access the original Node-API.

Node-API provides the complex Threadsafe Function APIs to call JavaScript functions on other threads. It's very complex so many developers don't understand how to use it correctly. NAPI-RS provides a limited version of Threadsafe Function APIs to make it easier to use:

use std::thread;

use napi::{
  bindgen_prelude::*,
  threadsafe_function::{ErrorStrategy, ThreadsafeFunction, ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode},
};

#[napi]
pub fn call_threadsafe_function(callback: JsFunction) -> Result<()> {
  let tsfn: ThreadsafeFunction<u32, ErrorStrategy::CalleeHandled> = callback
    .create_threadsafe_function(0, |ctx| {
      ctx.env.create_uint32(ctx.value + 1).map(|v| vec![v])
    })?;
  for n in 0..100 {
    let tsfn = tsfn.clone();
    thread::spawn(move || {
      tsfn.call(Ok(n), ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode::Blocking);
    });
  }
  Ok(())
}

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export function callThreadsafeFunction(callback: (...args: any[]) => any): void

ThreadsafeFunction is very complex so NAPI-RS does not provide the precise TypeScript definition generation of it. If you want to have a better TypeScript type, you can use #[napi(ts_args_type)] to override the type of JsFunction argument:

use std::thread;

use napi::{
  bindgen_prelude::*,
  threadsafe_function::{ErrorStrategy, ThreadsafeFunction, ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode},
};

#[napi(ts_args_type = "callback: (err: null | Error, result: number) => void")]
pub fn call_threadsafe_function(callback: JsFunction) -> Result<()> {
  let tsfn: ThreadsafeFunction<u32, ErrorStrategy::CalleeHandled> = callback
    .create_threadsafe_function(0, |ctx| {
      ctx.env.create_uint32(ctx.value + 1).map(|v| vec![v])
    })?;
  for n in 0..100 {
    let tsfn = tsfn.clone();
    thread::spawn(move || {
      tsfn.call(Ok(n), ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode::Blocking);
    });
  }
  Ok(())
}

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export function callThreadsafeFunction(
  callback: (err: null | Error, result: number) => void,
): void

ErrorStrategy

There are two different error handling strategies for Threadsafe Function. The strategy can be defined in the second generic parameter of ThreadsafeFunction:

let tsfn: ThreadsafeFunction<u32, ErrorStrategy::CalleeHandled> = ...

The first argument in the generic parameter of course is the return type of the Threadsafe Function.

ErrorStrategy::CalleeHandled

Err from Rust code will be passed into the first argument of the JavaScript callback. This behaviour follows the async callback conventions from Node.js: https://nodejs.org/en/knowledge/errors/what-are-the-error-conventions/. Many async APIs in Node.js are designed in this shape, like fs.read.

With ErrorStrategy::CalleeHandled, you must call the ThreadsafeFunction with the Result type, so that the Error will be handled and passed back to the JavaScript callback:

use std::thread;

use napi::{
  bindgen_prelude::*,
  threadsafe_function::{ErrorStrategy, ThreadsafeFunction, ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode},
};

#[napi(ts_args_type = "callback: (err: null | Error, result: number) => void")]
pub fn call_threadsafe_function(callback: JsFunction) -> Result<()> {
  let tsfn: ThreadsafeFunction<u32, ErrorStrategy::CalleeHandled> = callback
    .create_threadsafe_function(0, |ctx| {
      ctx.env.create_uint32(ctx.value + 1).map(|v| vec![v])
    })?;
  for n in 0..100 {
    let tsfn = tsfn.clone();
    thread::spawn(move || {
      tsfn.call(Ok(n), ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode::Blocking);
    });
  }
  Ok(())
}

ErrorStrategy::Fatal

No Error will be passed back to the JavaScript side. You can use this strategy to avoid the Ok wrapping in the Rust side if your code will never return Err.

With this strategy, ThreadsafeFunction doesn't need to be called with Result<T>, and the first argument of JavaScript callback is the value from the Rust, not Error | null.

use std::thread;

use napi::{
  bindgen_prelude::*,
  threadsafe_function::{ErrorStrategy, ThreadsafeFunction, ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode},
};

#[napi(ts_args_type = "callback: (result: number) => void")]
pub fn call_threadsafe_function(callback: JsFunction) -> Result<()> {
  let tsfn: ThreadsafeFunction<u32, ErrorStrategy::Fatal> = callback
    .create_threadsafe_function(0, |ctx| {
      ctx.env.create_uint32(ctx.value + 1).map(|v| vec![v])
    })?;
  for n in 0..100 {
    let tsfn = tsfn.clone();
    thread::spawn(move || {
      tsfn.call(n, ThreadsafeFunctionCallMode::Blocking);
    });
  }
  Ok(())
}

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export function callThreadsafeFunction(callback: (result: number) => void): void